American history Discussion homework

American history Discussion homework

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01. What is the period between when a candidate or party loses an election and

when the successor takes office called?

02. What is an act passed by both houses of Congress with a simple majority

rather than the two-thirds majority in the Senate?

03. In the early republic, what was the group of congressmen that traditionally

chose the party’s presidential candidates, though by the 1820s, the

American public distrusted it as undemocratic since it represented only the

party currently in power?

04. What was claimed by Andrew Jackson and his supporters that was made in

the election of 1824 when Henry Clay allegedly sold his support during the

House vote in the disputed election of John Quincy Adams?

05. What doctrine argued that the Union was a voluntary compact between

sovereign states, and that states were the ultimate judges of the validity of

federal law, and as such, could break the compact if they wished?

06. What term refers to government jobs that were given out to the political

supporters of the winning party, regardless of ability or the act of awarding

them government contracts, often based on political favoritism rather than

on abilities?

07. What system operates by which the victorious political party rewards its

supporters with government jobs?

08. What term is used to describe the end of slavery?

09. What descriptive adjective referred to an informal group of advisers to

President Andrew Jackson?

10. What term referred to the act of abstaining from the partaking of alcoholic

beverages?

11. What phrase referred to the belief that the United States was destined to

grow from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Arctic to the tropics?

Providence supposedly intended for Americans to have this area for a great

experiment in liberty.

12. What system permits all adult males to vote without regard to property,

religious, or race qualifications or limitations?

13. What term refers to metal money or coins, usually made of gold or silver?

14. What political party appeared in the 1820s and favored government action

to improve the nation and the lives of its citizens? It ran its last

presidential candidate in 1852.

15. What was employed in Congress from 1846-1844 to avoid debating the

thousands of anti-slavery petitions that were pouring in from abolitionist

Northerners?

16. What was founded in 1826 after the murder of a man who had published a

book about the Masonic Order’s secret rituals, becoming a single-issue

party aimed at destroying what seemed like the pervasive power of a

sinister conspiracy?

17. What was the Whigs’ euphonious campaign slogan in 1840, which referred

to William Henry Harrison’s victory over the Indians of the Old Northwest

almost 30 years previously and to their Vice-presidential candidate?

18. What was President Andrew Jackson’s 1836 directive to the Treasury

Department to accept only gold and silver coin in payment for federal

lands?

19. Which Massachusetts Whig politician (1782–1852) was usually

considered the greatest orator in an age of great orators? In a Senate

debate with Robert Hayne over the doctrine of nullification in 1830, he made

an eloquent plea for the Union against state sovereignty as the wellspring

of American liberty.

20. Who was one (1815–1902) of the founders of American feminism,

resenting the disabilities she suffered because of her gender from

girlhood? In 1840, on her wedding trip to Europe, she and several other

women were denied the right to sit on the floor of an antislavery convention.

From then on, while raising seven children, she devoted her life to winning

the vote and professional opportunities for women and reforming divorce

laws.

21. What was founded in 1817 to help free blacks emigrate to West Africa? It

hoped that by answering slave owners’ fears of a large free black

population in the United States, they would be encouraged to free their

slaves.

22. What was the name given to an old, largely abandoned mission compound

in San Antonio, Texas. (It refers to “cottonwood tree.”) It became the

symbol of Texan independence when, in March 1836, Mexican president

Santa Anna defeated a handful of defenders there and executed the

survivors.

23. In 1844 what politician of Tennessee was the Democratic Party’s nominee

when delegates who favored the annexation of Texas refused to accept

Martin Van Buren, the party’s most prominent leader?

24. What was a popular slogan in 1845, which referred to the northern

boundary of the Oregon Country (the southern boundary of Russian

Alaska)? If Great Britain did not yield the whole of Oregon,

the United States would go to war. President Polk used the patriotic

hysteria behind the slogan but had no intention of going to war with Britain

in an attempt to win the northern part of Oregon (now British Columbia),

where there was no American presence worth mentioning.

25. What appellation referred originally to a major party’s candidate for the

presidency who had not been considered a possible nominee, but who

was selected by the party when it was unable to agree on serious

contenders?

26. What was the name given to a swath of land across western New York that

experienced one religious excitement after another in the 1820s, 1830s,

and 1840s? It was a hotbed of religious mania and experimentation.

Among the notable people who lived in the “district” were Charles

Grandison Finney, William Miller, the Fox sisters, and Joseph Smith.

27. From class lectures, what term was used to describe the invasion or

attempt to invade various Latin American areas to attempt to add them to

the slaveholding regions of the United States? The word originated from a

Spanish word meaning a freebooter or pirate.

28. What was the catchword applied to the aggressive defense of slavery that

was a response to the abolitionist movement during the 1830s? Most

white Southerners had considered slavery at best a necessary evil

saddled on the South by history and was beneficial for both whites and

blacks.

29. What term by which white Southerners referred to slavery was a

euphemistic alternative to saying the word slavery, just as 18th-century

slave owners had called their slaves “servants” and 19th-century planters

often called their slaves “my people? ”However, it was also a pointed

reference to the fact that although slavery was not unique to the South by

the fourth decade of the century, it was almost unique, distinct and

particular to the American South.

30. What term refers to the period beginning in 1828 the Democratic-

Republicans, later the Democratic Party, cohered under the leadership of

Andrew Jackson and when the Whig Party in 1834 was organized in

opposition to the Democrats. This period system survived until the 1850s,

when the Whig Party fell apart and saw the emergence of a new Republican

Party,

31. Which free black carpenter and Methodist preacher (1767?–1822)

in Charleston organized an abortive slave rebellion in 1822? He had been

a seaman as a boy and intended for the rebel slaves to seize ships and

sail for Haiti. An informer betrayed the conspiracy, and the ringleaders

were hanged.

32. What was the most popular form of theater among working men of the

Northern cities, whereby White men in blackface portrayed African

Americans in song and dance?

33. What term and social group developed in the early 19th century, and mostly

included large-city and country merchants, master craftsmen who had

turned themselves into manufacturers, and the mass of market-oriented

farmers? The social status first developed in New England, and many of

such values prevalent in areas of the United States were based on New

England morality.

34. What word refers to the act of having more than one wife?

35. What term was used by the Mormons to describe their “promised land”

where they could prosper and live without persecution?

36. What word refers to an attitude that favors the interest of native-born

Americans over immigrants?

37. What were established throughout the country during the mid-1800s by

religious groups seeking to escape from existing social organizations and

includes New Harmony and Oneida?

38. What school of thought emphasized the spirituality of the natural world and

viewed social institutions as stifling of the human spirit?

39. What is the nickname for members of the political organization of the 1850s

that favored temperance and opposed immigration?

40. What term referred to a farmer who works his own farm? Thomas Jefferson

considered them to be the most important group in the democratic republic.

41. What is the legislator’s term for a (usually unrelated) clause that is

attached to a bill already under consideration in Congress or in a state

assembly?

42. What attachment to an army appropriations bill in 1846, at the beginning of

the war with Mexico, by a Pennsylvania congressman, providing that

“neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in any lands taken

from Mexico?

43. What tactic was employed in Congress from 1846-1844 to avoid debating the

thousands of anti-slavery petitions that were pouring in from abolitionist

Northerners?

44. Which semitropical plant produces white, fluffy fibers that could be made into

textiles? Two main types were grown in the United States: Long-staple type

produced high-quality fiber and had a smooth seed that was easy to remove,

and the short-staple type was hardier, which could be produced throughout a

large part of the Deep South.

45. What was the derisive name for the American Party of the 1850s, an anti-

immigration and anti-Catholic movement that won control of several states

between 1852 and 1854, electing 43 members to Congress?

46. What term was used to describe people who opposed the expansion of

slavery into the territories? It came from the name of a small political party in

the election of 1848 and whose members wanted to exclude all Blacks from

the territories.

47. What term refers to acting in good faith?

48. Which political third party contributed the presidential nominating convention

as an effort for more transparency and participation in the selection of

presidential candidates?

49. The formation of what political party was inspired by the Wilmot Proviso,

particularly after the House of Representatives approved it and attached

the Wilmot Proviso to 50 bills during and after the war? Each time, the

proviso was removed in the Senate mostly by the Southern senators.

50. What term was used to describe the invasion by freebooters or pirates or

attempt to invade various Latin American areas to attempt to add them to the

slaveholding regions of the United States?

51. What is the appellation attached to a group of young members of the

Democratic Party who were interested in territorial expansion in the 1840s?

52. What was the derisive sobriquet used by Democrats to signify the belief that

the Republican Party stood for racial equality? The Democrats used this fear

to convince many whites to remain loyal to them.

53. What term was used to describe pro-slavery Missourians who streamed into

Kansas in 1854, determined to vote as many times as necessary to install a

pro-slavery government there?

54. What was the belief that all work in a free society is honorable and that

manual labor is degraded when it is equated with slavery or bondage?

55. What is the intermittent act of abstaining from the partaking of alcoholic

beverages?

56. What is the idea that government is subject to the will of the people? Applied

to the territories, this idea meant that the residents of a territory should

determine, through their legislatures, whether to allow slavery.

58. What was the 1857 US Supreme Court decision that ruled the Missouri

Compromise unconstitutional, thus denying the federal government the right

to exclude slavery in the territories and declaring that African Americans were

not citizens?

58. What was the enormously popular 1852 antislavery novel by Harriet Beecher

Stowe that helped to solidify Northern sentiment against slavery and to

confirm white Southerners’ sense that no sympathy remained for them in the

free states?

59. With key elements including the admission of California as a free state and

the Fugitive Slave Act, what were the laws meant to resolve the dispute over

the spread of slavery in the territories?

60. What was the antislavery party formed in 1854 following passage of the

Kansas-Nebraska Act, and whose members attempted to unite all those who

opposed the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States?

61. What was a law included in the Compromise of 1850 to help attract Southern

support for the legislative package, notably its strict provisions for capturing

runaway slaves provoked outrage in the North and intensified antislavery

sentiment in the region?

62. What was the first major battle of the Civil War, fought at a railroad junction in

northern Virginia on July 21, 1861, whereby the Union suffered a sobering

defeat, while the Confederates’ felt affirmed in their superiority and the

inevitability of Confederate nationhood?

63. First introduced by the Confederacy in 1862, what term used during the Civil

War referred to forcing men to serve in the military?

64. What was President Lincoln’s January 1, 1863, declaration that all slaves in

Confederate-controlled territory were free, making the Civil War a war to free

slaves, although its limitations—exemptions for loyal border states and

Union-occupied areas of the Confederacy—made some ridicule the act?

65. What term refers to the closing of a country’s harbors by enemy ships to

prevent trade and commerce, especially to prevent traffic in military supplies?

66. What term refers to metal money or coins, usually made of gold or silver?

67. What term refers to the act of a state withdrawing from the Union? South

Carolina was the first state to attempt to do this in 1860.

68. What term referred to paper money used by the Union to help finance the

Civil War, in essence a temporary legal tender?

69. What term was used by General Benjamin Butler in the James River area in

1861 to describe slaves who came within the Union lines?

70. What term was used by some Republicans to describe Peace Democrats,

impiyng that they were traitors to the Union? Peace Democrats thought that

the war was a failure and should be abandoned.

71. What perjorative was used to refer to a Northern man with Southern

principles or sympathies?

72. In accusing Abraham Lincoln of advocating this practice, what term was

purportedly invented by Democrats in the election of 1864 to refer to

interracial sexual relations?

73. What exists when government is ruled by military force rather than by

citizens, often used most often in emergency situations?

74. What battle is the bloodiest day in American history?

75. What was the Confederate diplomatic strategy built on the hope that

European nations starving for cotton would break the Union blockade and

recognize the Confederacy?

76. What cone-shaped lead bullet whose base expanded upon firing was used

during the Civil War?

77. What two (2) 1863 battles represented the turning points as Union victories in

the US Civil War?

a) b)

78. What portion of the Confederate conscription law exempted from the draft

one white man on every plantation owning specific numbers of slaves? The

law’s purpose was to exempt overseers or owners which would ensure

discipline over the slaves and keep up production, but it was regarded as

discrimination by non-slaveholding families.

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79. Which eleven (11) men to 1865 became American Presidents without having

served as Vice President of the United States?

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

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