DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH PROBIOTICS ARE PROPOSED TO EXERT THERAPEUTIC BENEFIT IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH PROBIOTICS ARE PROPOSED TO EXERT THERAPEUTIC BENEFIT IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

a) Describe the mechanisms by which probiotics are proposed to exert therapeutic
benefit in the gastrointestinal tract. (10 marks)
b) Discuss the evidence for the use of probiotics in the prevention or treatment of
gastrointestinal disease in dogs and cats. (11 marks)
c) Identify indications for, and limitations of, measuring serum cobalamin
concentration in dogs with intestinal disease. (5 marks)
d) Detail the indications for, and limitations of, measuring serum and faecal antiprotease
trypsin inhibitor concentration in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.
(4 marks)
e) Commercially available faecal PCR panels for dogs test for Giardia spp.,
Cryptosporidium spp., Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A
gene, canine enteric coronavirus, canine parvovirus 2 and canine distemper
virus. For cats, the organisms tested for are Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp.,
Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A gene, Tritrichomonas
foetus, Toxoplasma gondii, feline coronavirus and feline panleukopenia virus.
Detail the indications for, and limitations of, using this test in dogs and cats with
gastrointestinal disease. (18 marks)
2. Answer both parts of this question:
a) Discuss the rationale for antiproteinuric therapy in cats with chronic kidney
disease (CKD) and your recommendations for management of proteinuria in a
cat with CKD. (24 marks)
b) Discuss the interpretation of subclinical bacteriuria in dogs and cats and evaluate
the rationale for, and risks of, antimicrobial therapy in dogs and cats with
subclinical bacteriuria. (24 marks)
Continued over page
Small Animal Medicine Paper 2 Page 3 of 4
3. Answer all parts of this question:
a) With respect to the use of trilostane in the management of canine pituitary
dependent hyperadrenocorticism, discuss the intended effects, means of
monitoring treatment, unintended effects and causes of treatment failure.
(24 marks)
b) Outline the management goals in cats with long-term, insulin-dependent diabetes
mellitus where remission is unlikely. (4 marks)
c) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods that can be used to
monitor a feline diabetic patient being managed with insulin injections.
(20 marks)
4. Answer all parts of this question:
a) List predisposing factors, or causes of, primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs.
(3 marks)
b) List diseases and drugs that can cause secondary hyperlipidaemia in dogs.
(5 marks)
c) Discuss the diagnostic investigation of a canine patient with hyperlipidaemia.
(10 marks)
d) List possible complications of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs. (5 marks)
e) With respect to the management of primary hyperlipidemia discuss:
i. Indications for initiating treatment. (3 marks)
ii. Goals of treatment. (2 marks)
iii. Treatment options including mechanisms of action and side effects of the
treatments. (16 marks)
iv. Monitoring of treatment. (4 marks)
Continued over page
Small Animal Medicine Paper 2 Page 4 of 4
5. Answer all parts of this question:
a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques to detect
Mycoplasma spp. in the respiratory tract of cats. Your response should include
sample handling and laboratory techniques to optimise identification of the
organism. Discuss the clinical significance of a positive finding of
Mycoplasma spp. from cats with respiratory signs. (16 marks)
b) Describe how pulmonary function testing of lung mechanics can be used to
differentiate feline asthma from chronic bronchitis. (8 marks)
c) Discuss the diagnosis and management of a dog with neurological signs caused
by:
i. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (6 marks)
ii. malonic aciduria (4 marks)
iii. methylmalonic aciduria. (6 marks)
d) Discuss management and prognosis of feline audiogenic reflex seizures.
(8 marks)

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