New York University Psycology Report – Assignment Help

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need support to help me study.

Peer responses. 50 words each. APA format

Peer 1 Laura

In the textbook, Lerner expounds on the work of Bronfenbrenner regarding the concept of development contextualism. Lerner’s theory centers around contextual factors that influence a person from the time of his/her infancy. The factors that are examined include the child’s environment, and the direct and indirect societal factors that the child interacts with (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). Lerner further emphasizes the quantitative and qualitative elements that frame the functionality of each system by analyzing the importance of each interaction that takes place (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, Lerner proposes that the quality of the interactions that result from a child’s environment and social influences greatly shapes his/her identity. Likewise, the relationship between children and influential, relational units affects the way the individual develops, interacts with others, and understands the world around them (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Studies show that parental figures can improve the identity of children in various ways. In the Western culture of the United States, there is a strong value placed on independence, self-sufficiency, and the acquisition of a support network of peers. Accordingly, when children have healthy, supportive friendships, they are more likely to display appropriate social skills, display self-confidence, experience less stress, and have fewer psychological challenges (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, one way parental figures can improve children’s identity is through helping them build healthy friendships with their peers. Likewise, parents can provide various opportunities to build healthy, supportive relationships with other children within their age group, and model appropriate social interactions (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Cultural identity development is rooted in the familial system that children grow up in. Accordingly, studies show that the personal identity of children is shaped by what is valued in the culture, traditions, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors that are foundational in their upbringing (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, if children are taught negative or hurtful beliefs about their culture, or the tradition or culture of another community, it becomes internalized. As they interact with others this viewpoint is negatively expressed in how they view themselves, and the cultural importance of differing viewpoints. Conversely, if children are taught to embrace their culture and the diverse cultures around them, their self-identity is positively strengthened, and intercultural acceptance develops (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Gender identity development in children is often described as the way in which individuals perceive themselves to be either male or female. It can be cognitive and developmental in nature. Children understand their identity, and the identity of others as they develop and grow, observe perceptions of gender roles, and explore the beliefs of those around them (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Sexual exploration and identity development in children begins early on in life. It is noticed as early as ages three to four years old, as they notice differences in male and female shapes and characteristics (Oswalt, n.d.). Likewise, researchers report that it is influential in their self-identity as it relates to physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Though more research is needed on this topic, studies show that sexual identity development is a complex, multifaceted, and variable process. Likewise, cultural and familial complexities contribute to the intricate narrative of sexual identity development, and the positive or negative interactions that occur in these contexts (Telingator & Woyewodzic, 2011). Importantly, better protective and risk factors need to be identified and understood to help children develop healthy emotional and physical identities and perspectives.

References

Juntunen, C.L. & Schwartz, J.P. (Eds). (2016). Counseling across the lifespan (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://viewer.gcu.edu/V6W8wF

Oswalt, A. (n.d.). Early childhood gender identity and sexuality. Grace Point. https://www.gracepointwellness.org/462-child-development-parenting-early-3-7/article/12771-early-childhood-gender-identity-and-sexuality

Telingator, C.J., & Woyewodzic, K.T. (2011, December 16). Sexual minority identity development. Psychiatric Times, 28(12). https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/sexual-minority-identity-development

Peer #2 Clea

Developmental contextualism is a process that we all go through starting at birth that defines how we relate to others, the world around us and ourself. “Additionally, children do not develop their identity in isolation but rather in the context of the relationships they have at home, school, and within their communities.” (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1989, 1993). It is critical for parents to assist in the development of their children by being aware of the process that starts at infancy and continues throughout their lives. By giving children the structure and safety to interact in the world around them, allowing them to process, thrive and fail we are providing them the opportunity to develop healthy self-awareness with not only themself but others in their community and lives. “This approach to understanding the development of a child’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is built on the foundational tenets that a child’s development is rooted in her environment and that the behaviors she displays in her environment are an expression of her development.” (Bronfenbrenner, 1993, p. 4).

When focusing on the concept of cultural identity development, gender identity development, and sexual identity development in small children it is very important to be aware of your own assumptions and ideals on life. When we look at cultural identity we first need to understand our own culture and how it is viewed/accepted in the community we live in. It is important to also understand how others view our culture and our own biases that we might have towards other cultures. By understanding our own biases we are more equipped in making sure that our children don’t develop the same biases. When discussing our own culture and allowing children to experience other cultures and how important they are to the world we give them the opportunity to grow, have empathy/understanding and relate to the world around them.

Gender identity development is something that is very important beginning at an early age. When we allow our children to explore the world around them by pretend play we allow them to participate in different gender roles. By having kids interact with toys/books/clothes that are things that they are interested in and less about what society says boys/girls should play/wear we allow our children to foster their own gender identities. It is also increadibly important to be aware and receptive to children who identify as transgender, making sure that we are giving them greater support and encouragement due to unnecessary judgement that they may experience. It is important to understand the difference between a gender role and a sexual preference. For example, girls are quiet and sweet, boys are loud and destructive would be considered gender identities/roles; whereas your sexual preference identifies who you are attracted to.

I believe the greatest information we can take away from the development of our children is how impactful we as an adult are in their lives. We have the power to shape them in a positive or negative way. This can be intentional or unintentional, with our actions, our words or the community in which we live. It is so important that we recognize that the world around us mainly focuses on white, middle-class values/culture. “Conveying unconscious and unexplored values, middle-class White practices and values are conveyed to children (e.g., prevalent ideas surrounding beauty, value placed on learning and speaking the English language, determining which foods are desirable and undesirable), and children integrate them into their belief systems.” (Johnson, 2006). When we are able to stop and reflect on our own ideals, cultures, status, etc it allows us to be more receptive, understanding and have a more well-rounded cultural worldview.

References:

Juntunen, C.L. & Schwartz, J.P. (Eds). (2016). Counseling across the lifespan (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://viewer.gcu.edu/V6W8wF

Peer 3 Elizabeth

Developmental contextualism suggests that juvenile development cannot be observed independent of the people and places that encompass a juvenile’s life. People in a juvenile development include family, peers, school, and community (Richardson, 2011).

Gender identity development is fascinating. We are assigned a gender at birth because of the X or Y chromosome in the child’s DNA. There is a small percentage of children who identify with the opposite gender they were assigned at birth or in-between male or female. As the child grows gender norms help the child identify what “boys do” and what “girls do”. Parents can allow their child to choose what toys are like to play with and give them array of toys to play with to explore their likes (Rafferty, J., 2018). Cultural identity goes with gender and sexual identity, many cultures don’t believe in gender identity or allow sexual identity to be a decision other than a man and a woman can be together. Gender stereotypes have changed over time and that belief has changed for many people, but many religions and groups of people are becoming more accepting of child’s development.

Parent’s can improve their child’s identity by not putting them in a box and allow them to choose what they like, what they want to play, who they want to play with and their interests. Every child has strengths unique to them and allowing them to follow their path is important to their development. If your child isn’t involved in sports, dancing, cheerleading, cooking, or family traditions. They will be able to find their niche and be a contributing person to society and be happy with their gift.

References:

Richardson R.A. (2011) Developmental Contextualism. In: Levesque R.J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1695-2_11

Rafferty, J. (2018). Gender Identity Development in ChildrenPeer responses. 50 words each. APA format

Peer 1 Laura

In the textbook, Lerner expounds on the work of Bronfenbrenner regarding the concept of development contextualism. Lerner’s theory centers around contextual factors that influence a person from the time of his/her infancy. The factors that are examined include the child’s environment, and the direct and indirect societal factors that the child interacts with (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). Lerner further emphasizes the quantitative and qualitative elements that frame the functionality of each system by analyzing the importance of each interaction that takes place (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, Lerner proposes that the quality of the interactions that result from a child’s environment and social influences greatly shapes his/her identity. Likewise, the relationship between children and influential, relational units affects the way the individual develops, interacts with others, and understands the world around them (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Studies show that parental figures can improve the identity of children in various ways. In the Western culture of the United States, there is a strong value placed on independence, self-sufficiency, and the acquisition of a support network of peers. Accordingly, when children have healthy, supportive friendships, they are more likely to display appropriate social skills, display self-confidence, experience less stress, and have fewer psychological challenges (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, one way parental figures can improve children’s identity is through helping them build healthy friendships with their peers. Likewise, parents can provide various opportunities to build healthy, supportive relationships with other children within their age group, and model appropriate social interactions (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Cultural identity development is rooted in the familial system that children grow up in. Accordingly, studies show that the personal identity of children is shaped by what is valued in the culture, traditions, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors that are foundational in their upbringing (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, if children are taught negative or hurtful beliefs about their culture, or the tradition or culture of another community, it becomes internalized. As they interact with others this viewpoint is negatively expressed in how they view themselves, and the cultural importance of differing viewpoints. Conversely, if children are taught to embrace their culture and the diverse cultures around them, their self-identity is positively strengthened, and intercultural acceptance develops (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Gender identity development in children is often described as the way in which individuals perceive themselves to be either male or female. It can be cognitive and developmental in nature. Children understand their identity, and the identity of others as they develop and grow, observe perceptions of gender roles, and explore the beliefs of those around them (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016).

Sexual exploration and identity development in children begins early on in life. It is noticed as early as ages three to four years old, as they notice differences in male and female shapes and characteristics (Oswalt, n.d.). Likewise, researchers report that it is influential in their self-identity as it relates to physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Though more research is needed on this topic, studies show that sexual identity development is a complex, multifaceted, and variable process. Likewise, cultural and familial complexities contribute to the intricate narrative of sexual identity development, and the positive or negative interactions that occur in these contexts (Telingator & Woyewodzic, 2011). Importantly, better protective and risk factors need to be identified and understood to help children develop healthy emotional and physical identities and perspectives.

References:

Juntunen, C.L. & Schwartz, J.P. (Eds). (2016). Counseling across the lifespan (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://viewer.gcu.edu/V6W8wF

Oswalt, A. .d.). Early childhood gender identity and sexuality. Grace Point. https://www.gracepointwellness.org/462-child-development-parenting-early-3-7/article/12771-early-childhood-gender-identity-and-sexuality

Telingator, C.J., & Woyewodzic, K.T. (2011, December 16). Sexual minority identity development. Psychiatric Times, 28(12). https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/sexual-minority-identity-development

Peer #2 Clea

Developmental contextualism is a process that we all go through starting at birth that defines how we relate to others, the world around us and ourself. “Additionally, children do not develop their identity in isolation but rather in the context of the relationships they have at home, school, and within their communities.” (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1989, 1993). It is critical for parents to assist in the development of their children by being aware of the process that starts at infancy and continues throughout their lives. By giving children the structure and safety to interact in the world around them, allowing them to process, thrive and fail we are providing them the opportunity to develop healthy self-awareness with not only themself but others in their community and lives. “This approach to understanding the development of a child’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is built on the foundational tenets that a child’s development is rooted in her environment and that the behaviors she displays in her environment are an expression of her development.” (Bronfenbrenner, 1993, p. 4).

When focusing on the concept of cultural identity development, gender identity development, and sexual identity development in small children it is very important to be aware of your own assumptions and ideals on life. When we look at cultural identity we first need to understand our own culture and how it is viewed/accepted in the community we live in. It is important to also understand how others view our culture and our own biases that we might have towards other cultures. By understanding our own biases we are more equipped in making sure that our children don’t develop the same biases. When discussing our own culture and allowing children to experience other cultures and how important they are to the world we give them the opportunity to grow, have empathy/understanding and relate to the world around them.

Gender identity development is something that is very important beginning at an early age. When we allow our children to explore the world around them by pretend play we allow them to participate in different gender roles. By having kids interact with toys/books/clothes that are things that they are interested in and less about what society says boys/girls should play/wear we allow our children to foster their own gender identities. It is also increadibly important to be aware and receptive to children who identify as transgender, making sure that we are giving them greater support and encouragement due to unnecessary judgement that they may experience. It is important to understand the difference between a gender role and a sexual preference. For example, girls are quiet and sweet, boys are loud and destructive would be considered gender identities/roles; whereas your sexual preference identifies who you are attracted to.

I believe the greatest information we can take away from the development of our children is how impactful we as an adult are in their lives. We have the power to shape them in a positive or negative way. This can be intentional or unintentional, with our actions, our words or the community in which we live. It is so important that we recognize that the world around us mainly focuses on white, middle-class values/culture. “Conveying unconscious and unexplored values, middle-class White practices and values are conveyed to children (e.g., prevalent ideas surrounding beauty, value placed on learning and speaking the English language, determining which foods are desirable and undesirable), and children integrate them into their belief systems.” (Johnson, 2006). When we are able to stop and reflect on our own ideals, cultures, status, etc it allows us to be more receptive, understanding and have a more well-rounded cultural worldview.

References:

Juntunen, C.L. & Schwartz, J.P. (Eds). (2016). Counseling across the lifespan (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://viewer.gcu.edu/V6W8wF

Peer 3 Elizabeth

Developmental contextualism suggests that juvenile development cannot be observed independent of the people and places that encompass a juvenile’s life. People in a juvenile development include family, peers, school, and community (Richardson, 2011).

Gender identity development is fascinating. We are assigned a gender at birth because of the X or Y chromosome in the child’s DNA. There is a small percentage of children who identify with the opposite gender they were assigned at birth or in-between male or female. As the child grows gender norms help the child identify what “boys do” and what “girls do”. Parents can allow their child to choose what toys are like to play with and give them array of toys to play with to explore their likes (Rafferty, J., 2018). Cultural identity goes with gender and sexual identity, many cultures don’t believe in gender identity or allow sexual identity to be a decision other than a man and a woman can be together. Gender stereotypes have changed over time and that belief has changed for many people, but many religions and groups of people are becoming more accepting of child’s development.

Parent’s can improve their child’s identity by not putting them in a box and allow them to choose what they like, what they want to play, who they want to play with and their interests. Every child has strengths unique to them and allowing them to follow their path is important to their development. If your child isn’t involved in sports, dancing, cheerleading, cooking, or family traditions. They will be able to find their niche and be a contributing person to society and be happy with their gift.

References:

Richardson R.A. (2011) Developmental Contextualism. In: Levesque R.J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1695-2_11

Rafferty, J. (2018). Gender Identity Development in Children. HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved 21 April 2021, from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/Pages/Gender-Identity-and-Gender-Confusion-In-Children.. HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved 21 April 2021, from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/Pages/Gender-Identity-and-Gender-Confusion-In-Children.

We provide plagiarism free assignment answers written from scratch. Our online essay writers provide an individual approach to every single assignment


If you are looking for fast and reliable online essay writing help, you have just landed on the right page. From now on, you can stop worry and forget about writing assignments: your college papers are safe with our online academic writers


ORDER A SIMILAR ESSAY WRITTEN FROM SCRATCH

PLACE YOUR ORDER